|Under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net|
|Release Date: May 14, 2004 [EBook #12350]|
| Produced by Paul Murray, Sander van Rijnswou and PG Distributed Proofreaders. Produced from images from Feeding America: The Historic American Cookbook Project at Michigan State University (http://digital.lib.msu.edu/cookbooks/index.cfm)
|The International Jewish Cook Book|
|Florence Kreisler Greenbaum|
|Instructor in Cooking and Domestic Science|
|1600 recipes according to the Jewish dietary laws with the rules for kashering|
|The favorite recipes of America, Austria, Germany, Russia, France, Poland, Roumania, etc., etc.|
This is the Jellies and Preserves section of this book Edit
Jellies and Preserves Edit
In making preserves or jellies use none but porcelain-lined or bell-metal kettles, being very careful to have them perfectly clean. Scour with sapolio or sand before using. Take plenty of time to do your work, as you will find that too great hurry is unprofitable. Use glass jars and the best white sugar, and do not have any other cooking going on while preserving, as the steam or grease will be apt to injure your preserves.
When fruit is preserved with a large amount of sugar (a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit) it does not need to be sealed in airtight jars; because bacteria do not readily form in the thick, sugary syrup. It is, however, best kept in small sealed jars.
In damp weather jelly takes longer to form. Try to select a sunny, dry day for jelly making. You can prepare your juice even if it is cloudy, but wait for sunshine before adding the sugar and final boiling.
Utensils for jelly makingEdit
Large enamelled kettle, syrup gauge, two colanders, wooden masher, wooden spoon, jelly glasses, one-quart measure, two enamelled cups, one baking-pan, two earthen bowls, paraffin wax, enamelled dishpan for sterilizing glasses and two iron jelly stands with cheese-cloth bags.
How to test jelly made at homeEdit
Much waste of sugar and spoilage of jellies can be avoided by using a simple alcohol test recommended by the Bureau of Chemistry, United States Department of Agriculture. To determine how much sugar should be used with each kind of juice put a spoon of juice in a glass and add to it one spoon of ninety-five per cent grain alcohol, mixed by shaking the glass gently.
Pour slowly from the glass, noting how the pectin—the substance in fruits which makes them jell—is precipitated. If the pectin is precipitated as one lump, a cup of sugar may be used for each cup of juice; if in several lumps the proportion of sugar must be reduced to approximately 3/4 the amount of the juice. If the pectin is not in lumps, the sugar should be one-half or less of the amount of juice.
The housewife will do well before making the test to taste the juice, as fruits having less acid than good tart apples probably will not make good jelly, unless mixed with other fruits which are acid.
To cover jelly glassesEdit
There are three common methods of covering jelly tumblers: (1) Dip a piece of paper in alcohol; place it on top of the tumbler as soon as the jelly is cold; put on the tin cover and force it down firmly. (2) Cut a piece of paper large enough to allow it to overlap the top of the tumbler at least one-half inch on all sides; dip the paper in slightly-beaten white of egg; cover the glass as soon as the jelly cools and press down the paper until it adheres firmly. (3) When the jelly has become cold, cover the top with melted paraffin to a thickness of one-third of an inch.
To mark jelly glasses sealed with paraffin, have the labels ready on narrow slips of paper not quite as long as the diameter of the top of a glass, and when the paraffin is partially set, but still soft, lay each label on and press gently.
Currant jelly Edit
Pick over half ripe currants, leaving stems on. Wash and place in preserving kettle. Pound vigorously with wooden masher until there is juice enough to boil. Boil slowly until fruit turns white and liquid drops slowly from the spoon. Stir to prevent scorching.
Remove from fire. Take an enamelled cup and dip this mixture into the jelly bags, under which large bowls have been placed to catch the drip. Drip overnight.
Next morning measure the juice. For every pint allow a pint of granulated sugar, which is put in a flat pan. Juice is put in kettle and allowed to come to boiling point. Sugar is placed in oven and heated. When juice boils add sugar and stir until dissolved.
When this boils remove from fire and skim. Do this three times. Now test liquid with syrup gauge to see if it registers twenty-five degrees. Without gauge let it drip from spoon, half cooled, to see if it jells. Strain into sterilized jelly glasses. Place glasses on a board in a sunny exposure until it hardens Cover with melted paraffin one-fourth inch thick.
Raspberry and currant jellyEdit
Follow the recipe for Currant Jelly, using half raspberries and half currants.
Follow the recipe for Currant Jelly.
Follow the recipe for Currant Jelly.
To five quarts of strawberries add one quart of currants and proceed as with Currant Jelly; but boil fifteen minutes.
The Concord is the best all-round grape for jelly, although the Catawba grape makes a delicious jelly. Make your jelly as soon as possible after the grapes are sent home from the market. Weigh the grapes on the stems and for every pound of grapes thus weighed allow three-quarters of a pound of the best quality of granulated sugar.
After weighing the grapes, place them in a big tub or receptacle of some kind nearly filled with cold water. Let them remain ten minutes, then lift them out with both hands and put them in a preserving kettle over a very low fire. Do not add any water. With a masher press the grapes so the juice comes out, and cook the grapes until they are rather soft, pressing them frequently with the masher. When they have cooked until the skins are all broken, pour them, juice and all; in a small-holed colander set in a big bowl, and press pulp and juice through, picking out the stems as they come to the surface.
When pulp and juice are pressed out, pour them into a cheese-cloth bag. Hang the bag over the preserving kettle and let the juice drip all night. In the morning put the kettle over the fire and let the grape juice boil gently for a half hour, skimming it frequently.
While the juice is cooking put the sugar in pans in a moderate oven and let heat. As soon as the juice is skimmed clear stir in the hot sugar, and as soon as it is dissolved pour the jelly in the glasses, first standing them in warm water. Place glasses after filling them in a cool dry place till jelly is well set, then pour a film of melted paraffin over the top and put on the covers. Label.
Take eight quarts of Siberian crab-apples, cut up in pieces, leaving in the seeds, and do not pare. Put into a stone jar, and set on the back of the stove to boil slowly, adding four quarts of water. Let them boil, closely covered all day, then put in a jelly-bag and let them drip all night. Boil a pint of juice at a time, with a pound of sugar to every pint of juice. Boil five minutes steadily, each pint exactly five minutes. Now weigh another pound of sugar and measure another pint of juice. Keep on in this way and you will be through before you realize it. There is no finer or firmer jelly than this. It should be a bright amber in color, and of fine flavor. You may press the pulp that remains in the jelly-bag through a coarse strainer, add the juice of two lemons and as much sugar as you have pulp, and cook to a jam.
Take sour, juicy apples, not too ripe, cut up in pieces, leave the skins on and boil the seeds also. Put on enough water to just cover, boil on the back of the stove, closely covered, all day. Then put in jelly-bag of double cheese-cloth to drip all night. Next morning measure the juice. Allow a wineglass of white wine and juice of one lemon to every three pints of juice. Then boil a pint at a time, with a pound of sugar to every pint.
Take equal quantities of fully ripe strawberries, raspberries, currants and red cherries. The cherries must be stoned, taking care to preserve the juice and add to rest of juice. Mix and press through a jelly-press or bag. Measure the juice, boil a pint at a time, and to every pint allow a pound of sugar and proceed as with other fruit jellies.
Prepare the fruit and cook peels and cores as directed for preserving. Cut the quinces in small pieces and let them boil in the strained water for one hour with kettle uncovered. When cooked the desired length of time, pour the whole into a jelly-bag of white flannel or double cheese-cloth; hang over a big bowl or jar and let the liquor all drain through. This will take several hours. When all the liquor is drained, measure it and return to the kettle. To each pint of liquor weigh a pound of sugar. While the liquor is heating put the sugar in the oven, then add to the boiling hot liquor and stir it until sugar is melted. When the whole is thick, and drops from the spoon like jelly, pour it through a strainer into the jelly glasses; and when the jelly is cool, put on the covers—first pouring a film of melted paraffin over the surface.
A Winter jellyEdit
One-half peck of tart apples, one quart of cranberries. Cover with cold water and cook an hour. Strain through a jelly-bag without squeezing. There should be about three pints of juice. Use a bowl of sugar for each bowl of juice. When the juice is boiling add sugar which has been heated in oven and boil twenty minutes. Skim and pour into glasses. Will fill about seven.
Wash and pick ripe cranberries and set on to boil in a porcelain-lined kettle closely covered. When soft strain the pulp through a fine wire sieve. Measure the juice and add an equal quantity of sugar. Set it on to boil again and let it boil very fast for about ten minutes—but it must boil steadily all the time. Wet a mold with cold water, turn the jelly into it and set it away to cool, when firm turn it into a glass salver.
Preserved figs Edit
Lay fresh figs in water overnight. Then simmer in water enough to cover them until tender, and spread upon dishes to cool. Make a syrup of a pound of sugar to every pound of fruit. Allow a small teacup of water to a pound of sugar. Boil until a very clear syrup; remove every particle of scum; put in the figs and boil slowly for ten minutes. Take them out and spread upon dishes, and set them in the hot sun. Add the juice of as many lemons as you have pounds of sugar, and a few small pieces of ginger. Boil this syrup until thick. Boil the figs in this syrup for fifteen minutes longer. Then fill in glass jars three-quarters full, fill up with boiling syrup and cover. When cold, screw air-tight or seal.
The sour red cherries, or "Morellas," are the best for preserves. Never use sweet ones for this purpose. Stone them, preserving every drop of juice, then weigh the cherries, and for every pound take three-quarters of a pound of sugar. Set the sugar and juice of the cherries on to boil, also a handful of the cherry stones pounded and tied in a thin muslin bag. Let this boil about fifteen minutes. Skim off the scum that rises. Now put in the cherries, and boil until the syrup begins to thicken like jelly. Remove from the fire, fill in pint jars, and when cold, cover with brandied paper and screw on the cover tight.
Weigh one pound of sugar for each pound of fruit. After weighing them brush each peach with a stiff whiskbroom. This should be done in putting up peaches in any way. After brushing them peel the peaches very thin with a sharp silver knife. Do not use a knife with a steel blade, as it discolors the fruit. As fast as the peaches are peeled lay them on porcelain platters. Put the peelings in the preserving kettle with enough water to keep from sticking. Stand the kettle over rather a quick fire and let the peelings boil with the kettle covered until very soft. Then drain them through a colander and pour the juice strained back into the kettle. Add sugar to this and let it simmer gently until it is a thick syrup. During the time the syrup is cooking it must be frequently stirred and skimmed. As soon as the syrup is thick enough, drop in the peaches, twelve at a time if for quart jars, and six at a time if for pint jars. Let the peaches cook gently until each one may easily be pierced with a broom splint.
Then quickly skim them out and lay them on a platter to cool. Repeat this process until all the peaches are done, then let the syrup cook until thick as molasses. Skim it thoroughly. When cool put the peaches, one at a time, in the jars with a spoon. When the syrup is sufficiently thick, pour it through a strainer over the peaches in the jars until they are full, then seal down quickly and stand them upside down for several hours before putting them in the store-room.
Strawberries in the sunEdit
To two pounds of berries take two pounds of sugar and three-quarters cup of water. Put the syrup in the preserving kettle; bring it to a boil and cook for about ten minutes, or until it begins to thicken. Add the berries; cook for ten minutes and pour them out in shallow dishes or meat platters. Cover with sheets of glass, allowing a little air for ventilation; place in the sun until the juice is thick and syrupy. This will take two days or more, but the rich color and delicious flavor of the fruit will fully repay the effort expended. Put into small jars or tumblers and cover according to directions.
To one pint of strawberries take one pint of sugar and one-half cup of water. Unless strawberries are cooked in the sun they should be prepared only in small quantities or they will be dark and unpalatable. If the following directions are carefully observed the berries will be plump and of a rich red color.
Bring the sugar and water to a boil; add the strawberries and cook ten minutes. Remove the berries carefully with a skimmer and cook the syrup until it is of the consistency of jelly. Return the berries to the syrup; bring all to a boil and when cool put in glass tumblers.
Strawberries and pineappleEdit
Follow the recipe for Preserved Strawberries, using two-thirds pineapple and one-third strawberries.
To one pineapple take three-quarters of its weight in sugar and one cup of water. Peel the pineapple and put it through the food-chopper. Weigh and add three-quarters of the weight in sugar. Bring slowly to a boil and simmer for about twenty minutes, or until the consistency of marmalade.
Preserved damson plumsEdit
Pick the plums over carefully, removing every one that has a decayed spot or blemish. Leave the stems on. After picking the fruit over, wash it carefully in cold water; then weigh it and allow one pound of sugar to each pound of fruit. Put a gill of water in the preserving kettle for each pound of sugar, stand the kettle over a moderate fire and add the sugar. Stir it almost constantly with a wooden spoon until the sugar melts; then turn on a little more heat and let the melted sugar boil gently until it is a thick syrup. Stir, and skim it frequently. When the required thickness (which should be like syrup used for griddle cakes) put the plums in the boiling syrup and let them cook gently for half an hour; then skim out the plums and put them in glass jars, filling each jar half full. Let the syrup boil till almost as thick as jelly, then pour it in the jars, filling them quite full. Fasten the tops on and stand the jars upside down until the preserves are cold; then put them where they are to be kept for the winter.
Weigh 3/4 of a pound of sugar for each pound of fruit. After washing the plums carefully, put them in a preserving kettle with just enough water to keep them from sticking to the bottom. Set them over a moderate fire and let them simmer for half an hour; then turn them, juice and all, into a colander, filling the colander not more than half full. Have the colander set over a large earthen bowl. With a potato masher, press juice and pulp through the colander into the bowl, leaving skins and pits as dry as possible. Remove these from the colander and repeat the process until all the pulp and juice is pressed out; then pour it into the kettle and, while it is heating slowly, heat the sugar in the oven. As soon as the juice and pulp begins to simmer stir in the hot sugar, and when it drops from the spoon like a thick jelly pour it into the glasses. This is one of the most delicious fruit preserves made and is always acceptable with meat and poultry or as a sweetmeat at afternoon teas.
To five pounds of red raspberries (not too ripe) add five pounds of loaf sugar. Mash the whole well in a preserving kettle (to do this thoroughly use a potato masher). Add one quart of currant juice, and boil slowly until it jellies. Try a little on a plate; set it on ice, if it jellies remove from the fire, fill in small jars, cover with brandied paper and tie a thick white paper over them. Keep in a dark, dry, cool place. If you object to seeds, press the fruit through a sieve before boiling.
Jellied quinces are made after the direction for preserved quinces, only the fruit is cut in tiny little pieces and when put in the syrup is allowed to cook twenty minutes longer, and is put in small glasses with the syrup and not skimmed out as for preserves. Leave the glasses open till the jelly sets, then cover.
Wipe off each quince before paring, core and slice them, weigh your fruit and sugar, allowing 3/4 of a pound of sugar for every pound of fruit and set the sugar aside until wanted. Boil the skins, cores and seeds in a clean vessel by themselves, with just enough water to cover them. Boil until the parings are soft, so as to extract all the flavor, then strain through a jelly-bag. When this water is almost cold, put the quinces in the preserving kettle with the quince water and boil until soft, mash with a wooden spoon or beetle. Add the juice of an orange to every two pounds of fruit, being careful not to get any of the seeds into the preserves. Now add the sugar and boil slowly for fifteen minutes, stirring constantly; if not thick enough boil longer, being very careful not to let it burn. Take off the fire and pack in small jars with brandied paper over them.
The quince that comes first into the market is likely to be wormy and corky, and harder to cook than the better ones. It requires a good deal of skill to cook quince preserves just right. If you cook them too much they are red instead of a beautiful salmon shade, and they become shriveled, dry and tart, even in the sweetest syrup, instead of full and mealy, and sweet.
Weigh a pound of sugar for each pound of fruit. Wipe each quince carefully with a coarse linen towel. Peel, quarter and core the quinces. Put peels and cores in the preserving kettle with just water enough to cover them, and let them simmer with the kettle covered for two hours. Then strain the liquor through a fine sieve and return it to the kettle.
Cut the quartered quinces in small pieces and put as many of them in the kettle as the liquor will cover. Let them boil gently, with the kettle uncovered, until so tender they may be easily pierced with a broom splint. Take them out with a skimmer and lay on flat dishes to cool. Repeat this process until all the fruit is properly cooked; then put the sugar in the liquor and let it boil gently to a thick syrup; put in as many of the cooked quinces as the syrup will cover and let them cook in the syrup for twenty minutes; skim them out and lay on flat dishes to cool. Repeat this process until all the quinces are cooked in the syrup.
When they are cool put the quinces in glass jars, filling each one half full. Let the syrup boil until very thick, stirring it frequently and skimming it clear. Then pour it through a fine strainer, while very hot, over the fruit; and as soon as a jar is full, fasten on the cover. It is tiresome work to preserve quinces, but the result pays for all the trouble.
Pare and core the citron; cut it into strips and notch the edges; or cut it into fancy shapes. Allow a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and to six pounds of the fruit allow four lemons and a quarter of a pound of ginger root. Tie the ginger in a cloth, and boil it in a quart and a half of water until the flavor is extracted; then remove it, and add to the water the sugar and the juice of the lemons; stir until the sugar is dissolved and the syrup is clear; take off any scum; then add the citron and cook until it is clear, but not soft enough to fall apart. Can and seal while hot.
Marmalades require great care while cooking because no moisture is added to the fruit and sugar. If the marmalade is made from berries the fruit should be rubbed through a sieve to remove the seeds. If large fruit is used have it washed, pared, cored, and quartered.
Measure the fruit and sugar, allowing one pint of sugar to each quart of fruit.
Rinse the preserving kettle with cold water that there may be a slight coat of moisture on the sides and bottom. Put alternate layers of fruit and sugar in the kettle, having the first layer fruit. Heat slowly, stirring frequently. While stirring, break up the fruit as much as possible. Cook about two hours, then put in small sterilized jars.
The white part between the yellow rind and the inner skin of the orange used to be most sedulously removed, but now we know that there is great economy in using it. By doing so we can use large quantities of water in proportion to fruit, for it has the property of converting this into jelly.
The Seville orange used to be the orange used in Scotland and England for marmalades because of its bitter flavor, but we can get the same effect by using the grapefruit. An all grapefruit marmalade is not nearly so attractive and pretty as one of combined fruits, nor does it have the zest that the grapefruit seems to give to a marmalade where it is only one of the constituents.
Slice thin, skin and all, one grapefruit, one orange, one lemon. Add to this three times its measure of water and allow to stand overnight. Cook for ten minutes the next morning and then allow to stand until the next morning, when finish by adding as much sugar as there is liquid and boiling slowly until done, or until it jellies. The time commonly given is two hours, but a half hour less than this is ample.
Rhubarb and orange marmaladeEdit
Cut three pounds of pie plant into small pieces (unpeeled). Peel three oranges and cut into small pieces. Put with this two cups of sugar and the grated rind of one orange. Let stand overnight. Cook until clear, stirring often. Then add three pounds of granulated sugar heated in oven. Cook until clear; ten to twenty minutes. Pour into jelly glasses and cover with paraffin.
Apple and quince conserveEdit
A novelty for the preserve closet and one that is very good is made from ripe apples and quinces. Use one peck of juicy cooking apples and two quarts of sugar. Pare the quinces and cut out the cores. Put the parings and cores into a preserving kettle with two quarts of water and boil gently for forty-five minutes. Meanwhile, cut the quinces into eighths, put them into a kettle with three pints of water and simmer until the fruit can be pierced with a straw; then lift the fruit from the water and lay them on a platter to drain. Strain the water in which the parings and cores have cooked into the water in which the quinces have cooked, and after adding the sugar boil for ten minutes. Pare, core and quarter the apples, and place in the syrup with the cooked quinces. Cook slowly for fifteen minutes and seal immediately in sterilized jars. The combined flavors of the quince and apple are very pleasing.
Take three and 1/2 pounds of large red cherries, stone them and cook for fifteen minutes. Heat two and 1/2 pounds of sugar in the oven; add it to the cherries; also 1/4 pound of seeded raisins and the juice and pulp of three oranges. Cook until the mixture is as thick as marmalade.
Boil down any desired quantity of sweet cider in your preserving kettle to 2/3 the original quantity. Pare, core and slice as many wine apples as you wish to use. Boil slowly, stirring often with a silver or wooden spoon. Spice with stick cinnamon and cloves, and sweeten to taste. Boil from four to five hours; take from the fire, pour all together into a large crock. Cover and let it stand overnight, then return it to the preserving kettle and boil down, stirring all the while until it is the consistency of mush, and of a dark brown color.
Squeeze the pulp into one bowl and put the skins into another. Press the pulp through a sieve, weigh the grapes before you squeeze them and allow three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Put the strained pulp and sugar on to boil, the skins also, and boil slowly until thick. It will be much easier for you to heat the pulp before straining.
German prune butterEdit
Remove pits and wash prunes, take three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and enough water to keep from burning; do not stir but remove from the sides of the kettle occasionally. Let boil for hours; when done, place in glasses. Let cool; cover with paraffin.
To three pounds of sweet and one pound of sour cherries allow two pounds of sugar. Weigh the cherries when stemmed and pitted. Make a syrup of the sugar, add cinnamon bark and cloves. Put in the sweet cherries first, adding the sour ones half an hour later; boil down thick and cover the jars with brandied paper.
Remove the stems and skins from five pounds of grapes and boil the pulp until tender; then press it through a sieve. Boil the skins of three juicy oranges until tender, then chop fine. Put the grape skins and the pulp into a saucepan; add the orange juice, the boiled skins, five pounds of sugar, one pound of raisins—the muscat seeded—and one pound of shelled walnuts and boil until quite thick.
Plum conserve, No. 1 Edit
Wash five pounds of blue plums or German Prunes, cut them in halves and remove the stones. Peel four oranges, slice them fine and cut each slice in half. Cut the rind of two of the oranges into small squares, add one pound of seeded raisins. Take a measure of sugar and a measure of the mixture, place in preserving kettle on the stove and let come slowly to the boiling point and cook steadily for several hours until the fruit is clear and thick. Put in jelly glasses or jars.
Plum conserve, No. 2 Edit
Wash three pounds of German prunes, remove the stones and cut them into small pieces. Mix one pound of seeded raisins, two oranges cut in small pieces, the juice of two lemons, one pound English walnuts broken in chunks, and three pounds of sugar. Place all the ingredients in the preserving kettle on the stove and let come slowly to the boiling point and cook steadily until the fruit is clear and thick. Put in jelly glasses or jars.
This is very nice for all kinds of griddle cakes. Use the peelings of your peaches when you are through canning and preserving. Add 1/3 of the peach kernels and put all on to boil in a stone jar on the back of the stove with a little water. When soft, strain through a jelly-bag by letting it drip all night. In the morning add the juice of two or three lemons and boil as you would jelly. Set a pint of juice on to boil and boil for five minutes. Add a pound of sugar and boil five minutes more, but it must boil very hard. Bottle in wide-mouthed bottles or jars. Seal.
Weigh the peaches after they are pared and pitted. Allow a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Cook the peaches alone until soft, then add 1/2 of the sugar and stir frequently. In half an hour put in the remaining sugar. Now watch carefully, stirring almost constantly for two hours. Boil slowly, and add 1/4 of the peach kernels. Spice with cinnamon and cloves, using whole spices.
Peel six oranges (California), cut the skin in very small narrow strips, or run through a food chopper. Slice the oranges very thin and quarter the slices. Let it stand overnight in three pints of cold water. Place this in a preserving kettle with three pounds of seeded raisins, three quarts of currants (picked and washed) and three pounds of granulated sugar. Boil all together for two hours and put in glass jars, closing them while hot.
If preferred, three pints of currant juice strained may be used instead of the whole fruit. This compote will keep perfectly well after the jar is opened.
Brush but do not peel the peaches. Select medium-sized ones. When all are well brushed, stick each peach quite full of cloves.
Make a thick syrup of half a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Cook the peaches in the syrup until they may be easily pierced with a broom splint. Then carefully skim them from the syrup and after they have cooled on the platters put them in glass jars or stone crocks. To the syrup in the kettle add a few pieces of stick cinnamon and a few whole allspice. Add half a pint of good cider vinegar and a tablespoon of tarragon vinegar to each quart of syrup, and when the syrup just comes to a boil after adding the vinegar pour it over the peaches. Delicious with cold chicken.
Pulp seven pounds of Concord grapes; cook the pulp and skins until soft; put them through a fine sieve; then add four and one-half pounds of granulated sugar, one pint of cider vinegar, two tablespoons of ground cinnamon, and two tablespoons of ground cloves. Bring to a boil; then cook slowly for one and one-half hours. Put in an earthen crock when cool.
This recipe may also be used with currants; use five pounds of sugar instead of four and one-half pounds.
Green or yellow plum tomato preservesEdit
Wash and dry four pounds of small yellow or green tomatoes and prick each one in five or six places. Stir three pounds of sugar in one-half cup boiling water until dissolved; add the tomatoes and cook until clear. When half done add the juice and the rind of two lemons sliced very thin. When the fruit is clear remove it with a skimmer; put in small jars, filling them two-thirds full. Boil the syrup fast for a few minutes longer or until thick and syrupy, fill up the jars; cover with a cloth until the next day; then cover closely and stand away in a cool place.
Spiced or pickled applesEdit
Pare the apples, "Pound Sweets" are best; crab-apples may be pickled the same way, but do not pare. Leave on the stems and put into a kettle with alternate layers of sugar; take four pounds of white sugar to nine pounds of fruit, and spice with an ounce of cinnamon bark and half an ounce of cloves, removing the heads. Heat slowly to a boil with a pint of water; add the vinegar and spices, and boil until tender. Take out the fruit with a perforated skimmer and spread upon dishes to cool. Boil the syrup thick; pack the apples in jars and pour the syrup over them boiling hot. Examine them in a week's time, and should they show signs of fermenting pour off the syrup and boil up for a few minutes, and pour over the fruit scalding, or set the jars (uncovered) in a kettle of cold water and heat until the contents are boiling, and then seal.
Weigh the fruit and allow a pound of sugar to every pound of fruit. Tie spices in a bag, such as cloves and cinnamon, and make a thick syrup of the sugar before you put in the berries. Boil half an hour and seal when cold.
Select tart, firm, red or yellow crab-apples, three quarts; remove all decayed spots but leave the stems. Put three cups of cider vinegar, three cups of sugar, and one cup of water in preserving kettle; let boil two minutes, add two tablespoons of cloves and two sticks of cinnamon broken; these spices must be tied in a bag, and let cook ten minutes. Lift out carefully with perforated skimmer, put in glass jars. When all the apples have been cooked, pour over enough syrup to cover; set spice bag away in a cup. Cover jars and let stand twenty-four hours. Pour off syrup and boil again. Wait two days, then boil apples, sugar, with spice bag until apples are tender but firm. Place apples in jars; cover to keep hot. Boil down syrup a little and fill the jars to overflowing with the hot syrup and seal.
Do not throw away the rind of melons. It can be preserved and will make a delicious relish. Remove the green rind of watermelon and the inside pink portion that is left on after eating it. Cut it into two-inch pieces and pour over it a weak brine made in proportion of one cup of salt to a gallon of hot water. Let this stand overnight, then drain and add clear water and one level tablespoon of alum. Boil in this water until the rind has a clear appearance. Drain and pour ice water over the rind and allow it to stand a short time. In a bag put one teaspoon each of cloves, allspice, cinnamon and ginger and place this in the preserve kettle with the vinegar and sugar. Allow one cup of sugar and one cup of vinegar (dilute this with water if too strong) to every pound of rind. Thin slices of lemon will give it a pleasant flavor—allow one lemon to about four pounds of rind. Bring this syrup to the boiling point and skim. Add the melon and cook until tender. It is done when it becomes perfectly transparent and can be easily pierced with a broom straw. A peach kernel in the cooking syrup will improve the flavor. Housewives who object to the use of alum can omit this and merely wash the rind after removing from brine to free it from all salt and then cook it slowly as per directions given above. The alum keeps the rind firm and retains its color. In this case the rind will require long and steady cooking; say 3/4 of an hour or longer. As soon as rinds are cooked they should be put into the containers and covered with the syrup.
Prick the plums with a large needle then weigh them, and to every seven pounds of fruit use four pounds of white sugar, two ounces of stick cinnamon, one ounce of cloves and a pint of best pickling vinegar. Boil the vinegar, sugar and spices, and pour boiling hot over the fruit, which must be packed in a large jar; repeat this three times. While the vinegar boils the third time, pack the plums in glass jars and pour the syrup over the plums. When cold seal.
Pickled cantaloupe or muskmelonsEdit
Take fine, ripe melons, pare, take out the seeds and wash, cut into slices about three inches long and two inches wide, lay them in a stone jar and cover with vinegar for twenty-four hours or longer. Then lay the fruit on a clean board to drip; and throw away one quart of the vinegar to each quart remaining. Allow three pounds and 1/2 of white sugar to a dozen small cantaloupes, three ounces of stick cinnamon, one ounce of cloves (remove the soft heads) and two ounces of allspice (whole spices). Boil the spices, vinegar and sugar, adding a pint of fresh vinegar to the old. When well skimmed put in the melons, boil fifteen minutes, twenty is still better; take out the fruit, put it in jars and boil the syrup awhile longer. Skim it again and pour boiling hot upon the fruit. Seal when cold.
Pickled husk tomatoesEdit
This tomato looks like an egg-shaped plum and makes a very nice sweet pickle. Prick each one with a needle, weigh, and to seven pounds of tomatoes take four pounds of sugar and spice with a very little mace, cinnamon and cloves. Put into the kettle with alternate layers of sugar. Heat slowly to a boil, skim and add vinegar, not more than a pint to seven pounds of tomatoes. Add spices and boil for about ten minutes, not longer. Take them out with a perforated skimmer and spread upon dishes to cool. Boil the syrup thick, and pack as you would other fruit.
Spiced or pickled cherriesEdit
Take the largest and freshest red cherries you can get, and pack them in glass fruit jars, stems and all. Put little splints of wood across the tops of the fruit to prevent rising to the top. To every quart of cherries allow a cup of best pickling vinegar, and to every three quarts of fruit one pound of sugar and three sticks of whole cinnamon bark and one-half ounce of cloves; this quantity of spices is for all of the fruit. Boil the vinegar and spices and sugar for five minutes steady; turn out into a covered stoneware vessel, cover, and let it get cold. Then pour over the fruit and repeat this process three days in succession. Remove the heads of the cloves, for they will turn the fruit black. You may strain the vinegar after the first boiling, so as to take out the spices, if you choose. Seal as you would other fruit. Be sure that the syrup is cold before you pour it over the cherries.
Take nice firm cucumbers, slice thin and salt overnight. In the morning take vinegar sufficient for covering the quantity prepared, mixed spices and sugar according to taste. Put on to cook and when boiling put in the cucumbers and cook for thirty minutes. Delightful as a relish, and can be kept for a long time if put in airtight jars.
Pears should always be peeled for pickling. If large cut them in half and leave the stems on. The best pear for this purpose, also for canning, is a variety called the "Sickle Pear." It is a small, pulpy pear of delicious flavor. Throw each pear into cold water as you peel it. When all are peeled weigh them and allow four pounds and a half of white sugar to ten pounds of fruit. Put into the kettle with alternate layers of sugar and half a cup of water and one quart of strong vinegar. Add stick cinnamon and a few cloves (remove the soft heads). Heat slowly and boil until tender, then remove them with a perforated skimmer, and spread upon dishes to cool. Skim the boiling syrup and boil fifteen minutes longer. Put the pears in glass jars or a large earthen jar, the former being preferable, and pour the syrup and spices boiling hot over the fruit. When cold seal.
Pare, core and cut small, eight pounds hard pears (preferably the fresh green Bartlett variety), half as much sugar, quarter pound Canton ginger. Let these stand together overnight. In morning add one pint of water, four lemons, cut small. Cook slowly for three hours. Pour into small jars. Seal when cold. Keeps indefinitely.
Spiced german plumsEdit
Wash the plums, remove the stones and in place of the stones put in almonds. Take the best wine vinegar, water and sugar to taste. Tie in a bag some whole cinnamon, cloves, and allspice; boil together with vinegar. After boiling, let it get lukewarm, then pour over the prunes. Let stand, and each day for nine days let vinegar come to a boil and pour over prunes. The last day cook the vinegar down some, then put in the prunes and let come to a boil; there should be sufficient liquid to cover them. Keep in a stone or glass jar. Grapes (Concord) may be spiced the same way.
Cut the brush part from the berry, but leave the stem on, wash thoroughly and let drip in colander overnight. For eight pounds of berries prepare a syrup of six pounds of sugar and three cups of water. When syrup has boiled till clear put in the berries and boil for three-quarters of an hour. Put in jars or glasses.
Boil the figs in water one and one-half hours, then drain and weigh. To seven pounds fruit use the following syrup: Three pounds of sugar, one pint of vinegar, two ounces of whole cinnamon, two ounces of whole peppers, one ounce of cloves, one orange, and two lemons sliced. Boil syrup one-half hour, add fruit and boil slowly two hours.