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Food Substitutions Guide

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Dairy Edit

  • butter:
    • 1 cup equals ⅞ oil
    • 1 cup equals 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons solid shortening plus ½ teaspoon salt
    • 1 cup equals 1 cup margarine.
    • beat 2 cups evaporated milk slowly until butter forms; pour into pan and chill
    • beat 1 cup buttermilk, ½ cup salad oil and 1 teaspoon salt into 1 pound of margarine.
  • buttermilk :
    • 1 cup equals 1 cup plain yogurt.
    • 1 cup equals 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice plus sweet milk to make 1 cup; let stand minutes.
  • cream (half and half):
    • 1 cup equals 1½ tablespoons melted butter plus about ⅞ cup milk
    • use ½ cup light cream and ½ cup milk.
  • cream (light) – 1 cup light cream equals ⅞ cup milk plus 3 tablespoons melted butter.
  • cream (heavy) – 1 cup heavy cream equals ¾ cup milk plus ⅓ cup melted butter. (but do not try to whip this. won’t work.)
  • cream (whipping):
    • 1 cup whipping cream equals ⅔ cup well chilled evaporated milk, whipped
    • 1 cup nonfat dry milk powder whipped with 1 cup ice water.
    • beat egg whites until stiff, then add 1 sliced banana per egg white; beat again until bananas are dissolved
    • add melted marshmallows to the white of an egg and beat until stiff
    • 1 can of chilled evaporated milk plus 1 teaspoon lemon juice, whip until stiff.
  • cream (sour, cultured):
    • 1 cup cultured sour cream equals ⅓ cup melted butter plus ¾ cup buttermilk or plain yogurt
    • for dips, 1 cup equals 1 cup cottage cheese pureed with ¼ cup yogurt or buttermilk
    • 6 ounces cream cheese plus enough milk to make 1 cup.
    • 1 cup plain yogurt or 1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 to 1½ tablespoons vinegar
    • 1 cup cottage cheese mixed in the blender with 2 tablespoons milk plus 1 teaspoon lemon juice
    • 6 ounces cream cheese plus enough milk to make 1 cup.
    • use 1 tablespoon lime or lemon juice plus ⅓ cup buttermilk plus 1 cup smooth cottage cheese, blend until smooth in blender.
  • milk (skim) – 1 cup skim equals ⅓ cup instant nonfat dry milk plus about ¾ cup water.
  • milk (to sour) – put 1 tablespoon lemon juice or distilled white vinegar in the bottom of a measuring cup. add enough milk to make 1 cup. stir and let stand 5 minutes before using.
  • milk (whole):
    • 1 cup equals 1 cup skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter
    • 1 cup equals ½ cup evaporated milk plus ½ cup water
    • 1 cup equals ¼ cup dry whole milk plus ⅞ cup water
    • 1 cup equals 1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2½ teaspoons melted butter or margarine
    • 1 cup equals 1 cup soy milk: in baking you may substitute 1 cup fruit juice for 1 cup milk.
  • yogurt – 1 cup equals 1 cup buttermilk. (some may be repeats!!)

Eggs Edit

  • for thickening – in sauces and custards, 2 egg yolks equals 1 egg.
  • for baking – 2 egg yolks plus 1 tablespoon cold water equals 1 egg.
  • for measuring:
    • 1½ tablespoons stirred egg yolks equals 1 egg yolk;
    • 2 tablespoons stirred egg whites equals 1 egg white;
    • 3 tablespoons mixed broken yolks and whites equals 1 medium size egg;
    • 6 medium eggs equal about 1 cup;
    • 5 large eggs equal about 1 cup;
    • 4 extra large eggs equal about 1 cup;
    • 10 to 11 medium egg whites equal about 1 cup;
    • 8 large whites equal about 1 cup;
    • 13 to 14 egg yolks equal about 1 cup;
    • 12 large yolks equal about 1 cup;
    • 10 to 11 extra large egg yolks equal about 1 cup.

Flavorings Edit

  • allspice – 1 teaspoon equals ½ teaspoon cinnamon and ⅛ teaspoon ground cloves.
  • bay leaf – ¼ teaspoon crushed equals about 1 whole bay leaf.
  • carob powder – 3 tablespoons plus 2 tablespoons water equals 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate.
  • chocolate – for 1 square semi-sweetened chocolate, use 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine plus 3 tablespoons sugar.
  • chocolate:
    • 1 ounce unsweetened equals 3 tablespoons carob powder plus 2 tablespoons water
    • 1 ounce unsweetened equals 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or other kind of fat
    • 1 ounce unsweetened plus 4 teaspoons sugar equals 1⅔ ounces semi-sweet chocolate.
  • coffee – ½ cup strong brewed coffee equals 1 teaspoon instant coffee in ½ cup water.
  • garlic – 1 clove equals ⅛ teaspoon garlic powder or instant minced garlic.
  • ginger :
    • 1 tablespoon grated fresh equals 1 teaspoon powdered
    • 1 tablespoon candied with sugar washed off.
  • herbs – in general, 1 tablespoon fresh equals about ½ teaspoon dried.
  • mustard:
    • 1 tablespoon prepared equals 1 teaspoon dried.
    • 1 tablespoon mustard, use 1 teaspoon dry mustard plus 1 tablespoon vinegar or white wine.
  • onion
    • 1 small fresh chopped onion equals 1 tablespoon instant minced onion
    • 1 small fresh chopped onion equals ¼ cup frozen chopped onion
    • 1 medium-sized fresh chopped onion equals 1 tablespoon onion powder
  • soy sauce – ¼ cup equals 3 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce plus 1 tablespoon water.
  • wine – for marinades, ½ cup equals ¼ cup vinegar plus 1 tablespoon sugar plus ¼ cup water.
  • Worcestershire sauce – 1 teaspoon equals 1 tablespoon soy sauce plus dash of hot pepper sauce.

Flour Edit

For thickening:

  • 1 tablespoon all-purpose equals 2 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca (use only for soups)
  • 1 tablespoon equals 1½ teaspoons cornstarch or potato starch.

cake flour – 1 cup equals 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour.

all-purpose:

  • 1 cup equals 1¼ cups cake flour
  • 1 cup equals ⅝ cup potato flour
  • 1 cup equals 1¼ cup rye or coarsely ground whole-grain flour
  • 1 cup equals 1 cup cornmeal
  • 1 cup equals 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons whole wheat flour.

self rising flour – 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1½ teaspoon baking powder plus ½ teaspoon salt.

Leavening Edit

baking powder – There are three ways you can substitute for baking powder, depending on the recipe:

  • 1 teaspoon baking powder equals ¼ teaspoon baking soda plus ½ teaspoon cream of tartar
  • 1 teaspoon baking powder equals ½ teaspoon baking soda plus ½ cup buttermilk or plain yogurt
  • 1 teaspoon baking powder also equals ¼ teaspoon baking soda plus ⅓ cup molasses.

When using the substitutions that include liquid, reduce other liquid in recipe accordingly.

Sweetening Edit

  • brown sugar:
    • 1 cup firmly packed equals 1 cup granulated sugar
    • 1 cup brown sugar – 2 tablespoons molasses plus 1 cup white sugar. best used in cookies and other cooked products.
  • confectioners’ sugar – 1¾ cups equals 1 cup granulated sugar, but do not substitute in baking.
  • corn syrup – 2 cups corn syrup equals 1 cup granulated sugar, but be careful when substituting. never use corn syrup to replace more than half the amount of sugar called for in a recipe. in baking, try not to substitute at all but if you must, for each 2 cups sugar, reduce the liquid called for (other than syrup) by ¼ cup.
  • honey – 1 cup equals 1¼ cup sugar. for baking, decrease liquid in recipe by ¼ cup. if there is no liquid in the recipe, add ¼ cup flour. unless sour cream or sour milk is used in recipe, add a pinch of baking soda.
  • granulated sugar:
    • 1 cup equals 1¾ cup confectioners’ sugar but do not substitute in baking;
    • 1 cup equals 1 cup packed brown sugar;
    • 1 cup equals 1 cup super-fine sugar;
    • 1 cup plus ¼ cup whatever liquid is used in recipe equals 1 cup corn syrup;
    • 1¼ cups sugar plus ⅓ cup liquid equals 1 cup honey;
    • ¾ cup sugar equals 1 cup unsulphured molasses (in baking, decrease liquid for each cup of molasses, omit any baking powder and add ½ teaspoon baking soda.)
  • maple syrup:
    • 1 cup equals ½ cup maple sugar
    • to substitute for sugar in cooking, generally use only ¾ cup maple syrup for sugar
    • to substitute maple syrup for sugar in baking, use the same proportions, but reduce the other liquid called for in the recipe by about 3 tablespoons for every cup of syrup substituted.
  • molasses:
    • 1 cup unsulphured molasses equals ¾ cup sugar
    • in baking, decrease the liquid by ¼ cup for each cup of molasses, omit any baking powder and add ½ teaspoon baking soda.

Tomatoes and tomato products Edit

  • ketchup – ½ cup equals ½ cup tomato sauce plus 2 tablespoons sugar, 1 tablespoon vinegar and ⅛ teaspoons ground cloves; 1 tablespoon equals 1 tablespoon tomato paste.
  • tomatoes – 1 cup canned tomatoes equals 1⅓ cups chopped fresh tomatoes, simmered
  • tomato juice – 1 cup tomato juice equals ½ cup tomato sauce plus ½ cup water plus dash of salt and sugar. or use one part tomato paste to three parts water plus salt and sugar.
  • tomato puree – 1 cup equals ½ cup tomato paste plus ½ cup water.
  • tomato sauce:
    • 1 cup equals 1 (6 ounce) can tomato paste plus 1½ cans water
    • 2 cups equals ¾ cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water.
  • tomato soup – 1 (10¾ ounce) can equals 1 cup tomato sauce plus ¼ cup water.

Miscellaneous Edit

Bread crumbs:

  • 1 slice bread equals ¼ cup dry bread crumbs
  • 1 slice bread equals ½ cup soft bread crumbs
  • 1 cup dry bread crumbs equals ¾ cup cracker crumbs.

Yeast – 1 package equals 2¼ teaspoons.

See AlsoEdit

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